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127 To reach this state of stability, both hydrogen and oxygen atoms create covalent bonds with each other, as illustrated in the diagram on the right. In a water molecule, two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the oxygen atom. But because the oxygen atom is larger than the hydrogen atom, its attraction for the hydrogen's electrons is correspondingly greater so the electrons are drawn closer in to the orbit of the larger oxygen atom and away from the hydrogen orbits. This means that although the water molecule as a whole is stable, the greater mass of the oxygen nucleus tends to draw in all the electrons in the molecule including the shared hydrogen electrons giving the oxygen portion of the molecule a slight electronegative charge. The orbits of the hydrogen atoms, because their electrons are closer to the oxygen, take on a small electropositive charge. This means water molecules have a tendency to form weak bonds with other water molecules because the oxygen end of the molecule is negative and the hydrogen ends are positive. A hydrogen atom, while remaining covalently bonded to the oxygen of its own molecule, can form a weak bond with the oxygen of another molecule. Similarly, the oxygen end of a molecule can form a weak attachment with the hydrogen ends of other molecules. Because water molecules have this polarity, water is a continuous chemical entity. These weak bonds play a crucial role in stabilizing the shape of many of the large molecules found in living matter. Because these bonds are weak,

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they are readily broken and re-formed during normal physiological reactions. The disassembly and re-arrangement of such weak bonds is in essence the chemistry of life. Water is a universal solvent due to the marked polarity of water molecules and their tendency to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules. To illustrate water's ability to break down other substances, consider the simple example of putting a small amount of table salt in a glass of water. Table salt, also known by its chemical name sodium chloride [NaCl], is an example of an ionic compound, which means that one of the atoms involved stole a valence electron from the other. In this case, the chlorine atom [Cl], stole an electron from the sodium atom [Na], resulting in the creation of an electronegative chloride ion [Cl-] and an electropositive sodium ion [Na+]. The two ions are bonded together because of the attraction of opposite charges. better understand ionic bonds After salt is placed in water, the ionic bond between the sodium and chloride ions is broken due to the competitive action of the water molecules that outnumber the salt molecules. The electronegative oxygen pole of the water molecule is attracted to the positively charged sodium ions [Na+], and the electropositive hydrogen pole of the water molecule is attracted to the negatively charged chloride ions [Cl-]. As with the example of table salt, water has the ability to dissolve many unwanted substances that have accumulated in our bodies over time, such as solid waste and toxins, and to flush them away through the body's natural elimination channels such as lungs, colon, kidneys, liver, and skin.

Theoretical problems With Alkaline water: The main problem with the concept is that it is impossible to alter the pH of a patient's blood without causing severe health concerns. Mammalian blood contains a vast number of different pH buffers which evolved to automatically raise or lower the blood pH if a deviation occurs. These buffers heep the pH of human blood between 7.35 and 7.45. If the buffers become saturated and the pH of the blood is altered more than +/-0.4 pH, death will result. It is commonly claimed by alkaline diet proponents that cancer cells are killed in an alkaline environment, which is true, but so are almost all other cells in the human body. Proponents will attempt to disregard the above by reminding us that it is possible to alter the pH of urine by eating or drinking particular foods, which is also true, but is completely independent of the blood pH. This is based on the metabolites of certain food chemicals (referred to as "Ash") becoming concentrated in the urine. As a (healthy) bladder is an independent receptacle in the body, the pH of the fluid contained therein also has no effect on the blood pH. A different attempt at disregarding this is the claim that blood pH is balanced not by buffers but by excess acid being dumped from the blood into the cytoplasm of cells, meaning that blood pH won't reveal that your cells are dangerously acidic; needless to say, this is false..

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Another clue of the ineffectiveness of an alkaline diet is that whatever food you eat will pass through your stomach. The acidity of the stomach is affected by things such as stress, amount of food eaten, or infections. Eating acidic or alkaline foods has no effect on stomach pH, in much the same way as it has no effect on the pH of blood. More recently, proponents claim that the benefits arise from reducing acid load in the body. It is claimed that when acid load is too high, "alkaline minerals" such as calcium are reclaimed by the body from bones leading to conditions such as osteoporosis. Meta-analysis studies have shown this is not the case. Far from being healthy, alkaline diets could actually be harmful, as they recommend removing certain food groups altogether rather than reducing certain types within the groups. Examples would be removing all fats and oils from the diet which provide Essential Fatty Acids, and dairy products, which are excellent sources of vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin D which is difficult to find in foods outside of dairy products. A further theoretical problem comes from the definition of "acid/alkaline food" used by many proponents of the diet, which is based on burning the food in air and testing the pH of the resulting ashes and remains. The results of this uncontrolled oxidation have only the vaguest resemblance to the by-products created by the actual process of human digestion and respiration, which involves breaking down the food into its consistuent molecules and metabolising them separately.

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Some people believe that alkaline water helps our bodies metabolize nutrients and expel toxins more efficiently than regular tap water, leading to better health and performance. Anecdotal evidence supports some of those claims. But so far, we don't have solid data supporting alkaline water's use. Until we learn more, save your money: Stick to tap water and supplement with mineralized water if you like. But what is alkaline water? Alkaline water is water that's less acidic than regular tap water. This means it is rich in alkalizing compounds, including calcium, silica, potassium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Many people believe that the typical North American diet contributes to chronic low-grade acidosis – a condition that may be associated with poor health outcomes including heart problems, altered hormonal status, and the loss of muscle or bone. Proponents of alkaline water believe that it can neutralize the acid in your bloodstream and help your body metabolize nutrients more effectively, leading to better health and performance. Let's take a closer look at these claims. Most of us know that water is a big deal. In fact, our bodies are largely made of the stuff. No other substance is so important to our physiology or health. No wonder so many of us feel concerned about increased pollutants and contaminants in our tap water. But before we completely dismiss North American tap water, the good news is that it's actually quite safe compared to the water in many other parts of the world. Tap water contains different dissolved elements that influence its pH level. Pure water has a pH level close to 7. Alkaline water has a pH above 7.



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